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Notes

Flamines maiores

The three flamines maiores:

  • The Flamen Dialis oversaw the cult of Jupiter, the sky deity and ruler of the gods.
  • The Flamen Martialis oversaw the cult of Mars, the god of war, leading public rites on the days sacred to Mars. The sacred spears of Mars were ritually shaken by the Flamen Martialis when the legions were preparing for war.
  • The Flamen Quirinalis oversaw the cult of Quirinus, who presided over organized Roman social life and was related to the peaceful aspect of Mars. The Flamen Quirinalis led public rites on the days sacred to Quirinus.

The twelve flamines minores:

  • Flamen Carmentalis, the flamen for Carmentis - goddess of childbirth and prophecy
  • Flamen Cerialis, for Ceres - goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
  • Flamen Falacer, for Falacer - an epithet of Jupiter.
  • Flamen Floralis, for Flora - a goddess of flowers and of the season of spring.
  • Flamen Furrinalis, for Furrina - goddess of water.
  • Flamen Palatualis, for Palatua - charged with guarding the Palatine Hill.
  • Flamen Pomonalis, for Pomona - goddess of fruitful abundance.
  • Flamen Portunalis, for Portunus - god of keys, doors, livestock and ports.
  • Flamen Volcanalis, for Vulcan - god of fire.
  • Flamen Volturnalis, for Volturnus - god of the Tiber, and may have been the god of all rivers.
  • Flamen Fragilisalis, for The Broken God - No longer worshipped (Unknown)
  • Flamen Aernalis, for Aerna - goddess of wind. (Unknown)

There were two other flamines minores, but the names of the deities they cultivated are unknown. The flamines minores seem mostly connected to agriculture or local cults. The change to an urban way of life may explain why these deities lost their importance or fell into oblivion.

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